Discussion on electrical layout and safety of the

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Discussion on residential electrical layout and safety

Abstract: This paper discusses the electrical safety of modern residential buildings from the perspective of safety and rationality, aiming at the determination of residential electrical load, the requirements of residential electrical load on wires, the layout of distribution boards and the reasonable wiring of residential buildings

key words: electrical load residential wiring electrical safety leakage protector Untitled Document in recent years, with the rapid improvement of people's living standards, a large number of residential low load power distribution and the rapid development of residential electrodes are incompatible, resulting in an increasing trend of electrical fires and personal electric shocks year by year, seriously threatening people's lives and property safety, which should be highly concerned and valued by people. Therefore, when long Lun is decorating a new house or buying an existing house, we must fully consider the safety, functionality, comfort and development of the electrical design in the house. 1、 The determination of the electrical load of a good house is particularly important in the electrical design of a house. In recent years, more and more circuit equipment have been installed and used in families, such as air conditioners, air heaters, microwave ovens, disinfection cabinets, computers, wooden blocks on the large removal table, power home cinemas, DVDs, EVD DVD players, etc., which has greatly increased the total power of the electrical load in the family, thus forming a contradiction that the existing residential line must have a load saltier than the lame B's demand for electricity, In the period of high power consumption, it is possible to cause residential switches to trip, fuses to fuse, and even wires or trunk cables to burn out due to overload, so it is difficult to ensure the safety and reliability of residential power supply. It is also possible to cause residential fires due to electrical fires. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of residential power consumption, the determination of residential power load must be "ahead of schedule". At present, in electrical design, the residential power load is generally stored according to the residential area of each household. According to the recommendation of the power supply bureau, the installation capacity of the general residence in the newly developed residential area is 6kW/household. For the high-grade residence with a large area, its installation capacity is accumulated according to the setting of household appliances, which is usually greater than 10kW. Experts believe that if considering the rapid increase of power consumption in the future, the residential power load design should be higher than 6.8kw now. Therefore, when choosing a house, users must ask the developer or the original homeowner about the design power load of the purchased house. It is best to buy a house with a power load of more than 6.8kw in order to relieve the anxiety of aftercare. 2、 Requirements of electric load on wires according to the requirements of electric load on wires, and in accordance with the new residential standards formulated and implemented by the Ministry of construction, the cross section of the incoming line of each residential user should not be less than 10mm2. In this way, for ordinary families, 1.5mm2 wires for lamps and 2.5mm2 for switches and sockets are enough, while 4mm2 wires should be used separately for the installation of high-power electrical appliances such as air conditioners. For the kitchen, because it is difficult to predict the development of electrical equipment, in addition to setting more sockets than before, the capacity of its power supply circuit should also be appropriately enlarged. Depending on the size of the residential area, the distribution line should be bv-3x4mm2. In the specific selection of residential cables and wires, 32A or 40A is generally selected for the household access switch, and the section of the incoming line is not less than 6 steel core insulated wire, which is usually designed as bv-3x iomm2. Indoor wiring shall not be less than 2.5mm2. Only in this way can the residential line work under the safe allowable load. Otherwise, the wire is running under overload, which is easy to accelerate the aging speed of the wire insulation layer. If the heat released by the wire core makes the temperature of the insulation layer exceed 250, the electric torsion will catch fire, and the electrical appliance will catch fire and cause the residential fire. Therefore, the selection of wires must take into account the safe capacitance in the house, and then determine it. 3、 The layout of the distribution board. The residential incoming line enters the distribution board. The board is equipped with a fuse. The fuse is installed in the fuse. When the current passing through the fuse exceeds the allowable safety value, it will fuse, and the hot beads will fall, which is easy to ignite items. For this reason, the distribution board cannot be arranged above the stack of combustible materials. The burning current of the fuse is usually 1.5-2.0 times of the rated current. For the sum of the total power of each electrical appliance in the normal use of electricity in the family does not exceed 1100 watt hours, it is OK to choose a 5-amp fuse in polyurethane material; When the current passing through it exceeds 7 amps, it will automatically fuse to achieve the purpose of protection. The fuse used by residents should be selected according to the capacitance. If 5A ammeter is selected, the fuse should be greater than 6a and less than 10A; If a 10A meter is selected, the fuse should be greater than 12a and less than 20a, that is, 1.2-2.0 times the capacitance of the selected fuse meter. If the selected fuse meets the specification but often blows, and the power line or electrical appliance has volume, the cause should be found in time to eliminate hidden dangers. It is not allowed to replace the coarse fuse at will or simply replace it with copper or iron wire, so that the fuse can not protect 2kW to 5KW; The role of nursing. The selection of single-phase watt hour meter should also refer to the total power of electricity consumption, as long as the total current passing through it does not exceed the rated current of the meter itself. In order to prevent electric shock accidents, leakage protector (RCD) should also be installed. The national "housing design standard" (gb50096-1999) (hereinafter referred to as "housing code") stipulates that the main power incoming circuit breaker of the housing should have the function of leakage protection. This is because grounding arc short-circuit (i.e. grounding fault) is a common cause of multiple electrical fires, but the current of arc short-circuit is small, and the general circuit breaker or fuse cannot or cannot cut off the power supply in time, while the circuit breaker with leakage protection function has high action sensitivity to arc short-circuit current, which can cut off the power supply in time to prevent the occurrence of fire. In order to ensure the selectivity with the socket circuit BCD, the leakage action current of the tripping of the residential main power supply is generally specified as 300mA or 500mA with a certain time delay, so that it can selectively cooperate with the socket circuit BCD in the time limit. When accidents such as electric shock occur in the family, it can act in time to cut off the current, so as to prevent tragedy. 4、 Reasonable home wiring reasonable home wiring is the basic guarantee of a safe and comfortable life for a family, which should meet four requirements; One is to ensure the safety of users; Second, ensure that household appliances owned by residents can be used normally; Third, ensure convenient use; Fourth, the various configurations of electrical circuits should be advanced to meet the needs of the new generation of information technology industry in the fields of integrated circuits, functional components and other fields, so as to ensure that they can adapt to the changing power needs of residents within the service life of houses. For the whole residential line. It is suggested that there should be more than 5 circuits in the house, and the humidity distribution should be carried out according to the use area. The lighting circuit can go two or more ways; Three to four power outlets; Kitchen and

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