Discussion on container transportation of the hott

2022-09-21
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Discussion on container transportation of bulk materials

bulk materials such as grain, ore, coal, wood chips, feed, fertilizer, cement, etc. can generally be transported in bulk or in bags. The most economical and fastest way should be selected by comprehensively considering the variety, quantity, distance, transportation capacity, etc. At present, railway wagons, large trucks or special carriages are generally used for the transportation of bulk materials by land; All waterways are transported by bulk carriers. Using containers to transport bulk materials

container transportation is an advanced modern transportation mode, the product and important symbol of the modernization of transportation, the development direction of general cargo transportation, and an important reform in the transportation field. Countries all over the world call container transportation the transportation revolution of the 20th century. Therefore, if container can be applied to bulk cargo and its advantages can be used to serve bulk cargo transportation, it will be another new highlight of transportation

1.1 advantages of container transportation

according to the definition of the international organization for standardization, containers, as a kind of transportation equipment, should meet the following requirements: (1) they are durable and strong enough to be used repeatedly; (2) It is specially designed for the convenience of commodity transportation, and there is no need to change the loading halfway during transportation in one or more modes of transportation; (3) It is equipped with devices that are convenient for loading, unloading and handling, especially for transferring from one mode of transportation to another; (4) It shall be designed to facilitate the loading and unloading of goods; (5) The content product is 1m+3 or more

at present, all bulk cargo varieties can be packed in bags and transported through containers, giving full play to the advantages of container transportation. One of the reasons why bulk cargo cannot be directly transported in containers is that loading and unloading are inconvenient. Bag loading can be easily moved into and out of containers

for a long time, the loading and unloading and transportation efficiency of ordinary bulk cargo is low, the time is long, the cargo damage and cargo difference are serious, which affects the quality of freight transportation, the freight formalities are complicated, affects the work efficiency, and has a negative impact on the economic benefits of shippers, shipping companies and ports. If container transportation is used, the above problems can be completely solved. Container transportation can speed up the circulation of goods, reduce circulation costs, reduce material consumption, save material and labor consumption, complete the production and transportation process quickly, with low consumption, high efficiency and efficiency, and deliver the goods to the destination and the consignee

the advantages of container transportation mainly lie in: (1) containers can be reused, which simplifies the packaging of goods and saves a lot of packaging costs; (2) Reduce the damage and difference of goods and improve the quality of freight transportation. Because the container is a solid and sealed box, after the goods are sealed, there is no damage and difference of goods, which reduces the waste of material wealth and improves economic and social benefits; (3) Reduce operating expenses and transportation costs. Because the container loading and unloading efficiency is high, it is not affected by the weather, which improves the loading and unloading rate of ships and ports, thus improving the efficiency

1.2 bulk transportation and containerization promote the production and utilization of bio based plastic products. Compared with container transportation costs

when there are more transfer operations, container transportation has obvious advantages in economy and speed. The freight of transporting quartz sand from a quartz mining area in Wenchang City, Hainan Province to a glass processing plant in Jingtian, Shenzhen is as follows: loading fee, freight from the mining area to Haikou Port, unloading fee, loading fee from site to ship, sea freight from Haikou to Shekou, lifting fee from ship to shore, stacking fee, freight from Shekou to the processing plant, unloading fee

if 20ft standard containers are used, each container can be loaded with 22T goods according to the specified net weight, and the cost is:

y= packing fee +980 (road freight) + 99 (unloading fee) + 100 (shipping fee) + 2000 (sea freight) + 100 (unloading fee) + 99 (loading fee) + 400 (road freight) + unloading fee =3778 (yuan) + 1 packing and 1 unloading fee

if it is shipped in bulk, the cost is:

y= loading fee +50 × 22 (Highway Freight) + unloading fee +20.5 × 22 (shipping fee) +7 × 22 (sea freight) +20.5 × 22 (unloading fee) + loading fee +30 × 22 (Highway Freight) + unloading fee =4202 (yuan) + 2 loading and 2 unloading are reduced until various solvents are not used

the unit price of bulk material loading is generally no more than 4 yuan/T, while dump trucks are generally used for unloading, with lower rates. It can be seen from the comparison that the freight rates of the two modes of transportation have been significantly different. However, there are many bulk loading and unloading operations in bulk transportation, and the cargo loss rate is not less than 5% of the measuring capacity of the bearing unit connected to the fixture (the actual loss rate is very large from the research and development of graphene in energy storage technology and other fields), and it is also limited by the number of cargo and the tonnage of the ship, and the operation time is also longer than container loading and unloading

1.3 problems in container transportation of bulk materials

there are two commonly used methods for container bulk material packing: manual shovel excavation and belt conveyor. There are two commonly used methods for unloading bulk containers. One is to lift the container from the semi-trailer to the ground and use manual or mechanical equipment to enter the container for demolition and excavation, which takes a long time to unload and has low work efficiency; The other is to use a crane to lift one end of the container, and the position of the other end remains unchanged, forming an inclination angle, so that the bulk materials can slide freely. These two methods require large lifting equipment, which is the technical bottleneck restricting the use of container transportation logistics for bulk materials

2 technical improvement of using containers to transport bulk materials

in view of the above technical bottlenecks in container transportation, we have adopted the container bulk self unloading device. Figure 1 is the self unloading schematic diagram of container bulk dump semi-trailer (the flat view is omitted). Figure 2 is the schematic diagram of the self unloading of the container bulk dump platform (the flat view is omitted)

2.1 the structural composition of the container bulk dump device is shown in Figures 1 and 2. The support 3 is rigidly connected in the dump platform or semi-trailer 1, and the support 3 is hinged with the hydraulic lifting system. The hydraulic lifting system is composed of an external power box 8, an operation and control box 7, a motor 6, a hydraulic pump 5, an oil tank 4, a floating hydraulic cylinder or a multi section hydraulic cylinder 2. The lower end of the hydraulic cylinder of the lifting system is hinged with the support 9, and the retaining column 10 in Figure 1 is fixedly connected with the ground, The rear axle of the semi-trailer is made as the self unloading hinge point 11, which is naturally hinged with the rear tire (as the rear leg 12); In Figure 2, the retaining column 10 is fixedly connected with the dump platform 1, and the dump hinge point 11 is the hinge point between the dump platform 1 and the rear leg 12

2.2 working process of container bulk dump device

during unloading (as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2): drive the semi-trailer to the dump platform 1 or the dump semi-trailer 1 to the dump site, with the rear wheel close to the stop column 10, and drive the tractor away. Connect the external power supply to the external power box 8 and close the power switch. At this time, the motor 6 starts to work and drives the hydraulic pump 5 to work, and the hydraulic oil circuit works at the same time. Pull the multi-way valve lifting lever in the operation and control box 7, connect the high-pressure oil to the oil circuit of the large oil chamber in the hydraulic cylinder 2, and connect the oil circuit of the small oil chamber of the hydraulic cylinder 2 and the oil circuit of the oil return tank at the same time. The hydraulic cylinder begins to extend, and the lower hinged support 9 begins to lower. After the support 9 contacts the ground, it lifts the girder through the support 3, drives the semi-trailer or platform 1 to rotate and rise around the hinge point 11, and the bulk materials automatically slide down after reaching the dump inclination angle of the bulk materials in the container 14, Realize self unloading. At this time, stop pulling the lifting lever to return the lever and let the materials be unloaded

flattening (Figure omitted): pull the lowering lever in the operation and control box 7 to connect the return oil circuit of the multi-way valve with the large oil cavity in the hydraulic cylinder 2, and the high-pressure oil in the multi-way valve with the small and medium oil cavity in the hydraulic cylinder 2. The hydraulic cylinder is compressed and contracted under the dual action of the dead weight and oil pressure of the container 14 and the semi-trailer, and the semi-trailer or dump platform 1 rotates and descends around the hinge point 11. After the container 14 is placed horizontally, continue to pull and lower the operating lever until the feet 9 are retracted to the original position, and then release the operating lever to make it return to its position. Finally, turn off the power supply, disconnect the external power supply, and the whole dump process is completed

from the perspective of the whole transportation process, the use of container bulk material transportation has obvious economy, and the advantages of container transportation can also be better played. It is technically feasible, and at the same time, it greatly reduces the transportation cost and improves the transportation efficiency

information source: lifting and transportation machinery

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