Application and development suggestions of the hot

2022-08-17
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Suggestions on the application and development of automotive plastics

nowadays, the development direction of automobiles is to save energy, prevent environmental degradation, and improve safety performance. As one of the important automotive materials, the development of automotive plastics also aims at these three aspects. With the deepening of research, the variety and application range of automotive plastics are expanding. Due to the superior characteristics of plastics, a large number of plastics are used in automobile design, which can not only realize the lightweight design of automobile structure, but also comprehensively reflect the requirements of automobile design performance, that is, lightweight, safety, corrosion prevention, modeling and comfort. In addition, it is also conducive to reducing costs and saving material resources

the application of plastics in automobiles is mainly divided into three categories: interior parts, exterior parts, and functional structural parts. External fittings: plastic instead of steel can reduce the weight of the car and achieve the purpose of energy saving; Interior trim: with the application characteristics of safety, environmental protection and comfort, the instrument panel, seat, headrest and other products are made of elastomer and foamed plastic that can absorb impact energy and vibration energy, so as to reduce the injury to human body during collision and improve the safety factor of the car; Functional structural parts: high-strength engineering plastics are mostly used to reduce weight, cost and simplify the process, such as plastic fuel tank, engine and some parts on the chassis

development trend of automotive plastic materials and products

with the continuous development of new plastic materials, plastics are expanding in the field of automotive applications, mainly in the application of nanocomposites, sprayable and spray free plastics, plastic lenses and plastic glass, fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, etc. Application of nanocomposites

TPO based nanocomposites, which are used in automotive interior and exterior decorative parts, have the advantages of light weight, improved dimensional stability, higher strength and better impact resistance at low temperature. TPO nanocomposites have been used in GM cars as car treads. They have high hardness, light weight, no brittleness at low temperature, and are easy to recycle

Toyota applied nano PP composite materials to the front and rear bumpers of cars, reducing the thickness of the original bumpers from 4mm to 3mm and reducing the weight by about 1/3. Toyota has also launched PP nanocomposites for automotive interior parts

the intervention of nanoparticles not only improves the strength, rigidity and toughness of the polymer, but also helps to improve the light transmission, barrier, heat resistance and UV resistance of the polymer. Due to its simple processing and obvious effect, the industry is optimistic about the market prospect of polymer nanocomposites

sprayable and spray free plastics

this technology developed by General Electric Company of the United States is also one of the key technologies in the material genome project. Electric ppo/pa materials enable body plastic parts to be cathodic electrophoretic with metal stampings (that is, full spraying), so as to eliminate the color difference between non-metallic parts and metal parts of automobile body. In addition, pc/pbt materials and SLX films used to manufacture automobile body panels can produce plastic body outer panels, front and rear fender and rear liftgate through in mold decoration injection molding process, which can achieve the effect of paint, and the paint line can be canceled to reduce production costs. This technology has been used in the production of car body panels abroad, which should attract the attention of domestic peers

plastic lens and plastic glass

headlamp lens made of special polycarbonate produced by GE company in the United States, coated with scratch resistant coating, is brighter than glass lens, more resistant to breakage, and more accurate in optical processing

the United States has attached another 20 inside the three-layer safety glass of the windshield μ M thick polyurethane film. The vast majority of passenger cars in the United States use acrylic resin plates, and the plasticization of window glass can achieve the purpose of energy saving and protecting the safety of passengers

fiber reinforced thermoplastic

long fiber reinforced thermoplastic (LFRT) is a new light and high-strength engineering structural material. Because of its light weight, low price and easy recycling, its application in automobiles has developed rapidly. Application parts: bumper, luggage compartment floor, battery trough, door, body, seat backrest, spare wheel rack, engine base, instrument panel, etc

using natural fibers such as flax and sisal reinforced plastics to manufacture body parts has been recognized in the automotive industry. On the one hand, natural fibers are environmentally friendly materials. On the other hand, plant fibers are 40% lighter than glass fibers. Reducing vehicle weight can reduce fuel consumption. The underbody panel is made of Flax Reinforced PP. The tensile strength of the material is higher than that of steel, and the stiffness is not lower than that of glass fiber reinforced material, making the parts easier to recycle. For operators, rash and respiratory diseases caused by fiberglass can be avoided. Some enterprises in Jiangyin, China have begun to produce such materials

application of plastics in automobiles

power transmission system

◆ the engine valve cover and oil pan are molded or pressed from glass fiber reinforced plastics such as polyamide, reaction injection polyurethane, epoxy resin, etc

◆ the cylinder liner and gasket of the engine are made of high-performance or traditional synthetic rubber produced by special process, including Cr and frm

◆ wear resistant PP molding materials are used in wear-resistant molding products such as gears and shafts to replace polyoxymethylene plastics

◆ in van and truck, the metal shaft replaced by composite material (glass and carbon fiber) transmission shaft reduces weight, noise and vibration, and makes the work more smooth. According to the requirements of inspection and testing for the first time, the transmission shaft made of fiber reinforced plastic by kn technology company has a weight reduction of 50% - 60%, a torsion resistance of 1.0 times greater than that of steel, and a bending stiffness of 1.5 times greater

◆ DuPont developed a composite glass fiber reinforced nylon 66 for the active collective plastic ventilation system of V6 engine. Suspension system

plastic springs can significantly reduce weight. The leaf spring made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is 14kg, reducing the weight by 76%. In the United States, Japan and Europe, the leaf spring and cylindrical coil spring have been made fiber-reinforced plastic, which not only has obvious anti vibration and noise reduction effects, but also achieves the purpose of lightweight

body

there are three main modes of application of plastic in automobile body

1) the outer cover and structural parts are all made of plastic: it is mainly used in high-end sports cars. Its skeleton structural parts are made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic, and the outer cover parts are made of glass fiber reinforced plastic, which is very expensive

2) combination of metal skeleton and full plastic outer covering body: the body adopts glass fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyester injection molding, and its equipment is 8800 ton injection machine, which is expensive

3) some parts adopt plastic outer covering parts: for some high-end cars, the skeleton structure adopts metal parts, while some parts of the outer covering parts adopt plastic parts. According to the properties of plastics, they mainly include: thermoplastic fiber reinforced plastics (FRTP), such as glass fiber reinforced pet, GMT; Thermosetting fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), such as hand laid FRP, RTM, SMC. According to the fiber, it can be divided into: carbon fiber reinforced plastics, which are ultra-high strength (higher than steel) materials and expensive; Glass fiber reinforced plastic is a common reinforcing material

develop plastic functional parts to further reduce the vehicle weight

◆ use glass fiber felt reinforced thermoplastic (GMT) to manufacture brackets, brackets and multi-functional parts

◆ the intake manifold made of plastic can reduce the weight by 40%-60%, with smooth surface and small flow resistance, which can improve engine performance, and play a certain role in improving combustion efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and vibration and noise reduction

◆ develop "composite conductive plastics" mixed with conductive fillers in the matrix polymer and "conductive polymer compounds" with conductivity in the plastic itself, which can be used for automobile production with their high functional properties

instrument panel, interior trim system

many foreign automobile factories use foam polyurethane to make door panels, which not only reduces weight, but also has good strength, sound absorption and safety performance. Polypropylene is widely used in the U.S. auto market because of its low price. It is not only used to replace ABS, but also used in the interior of some models

at present, the instrument panel used in China can be divided into hard instrument panel and soft instrument panel. The hard instrument panel is generally modified polypropylene, which is injection molded and used in economical vehicles. The soft dashboard is formed by polyurethane reactive foaming, which is usually used for medium and high-end cars. Engine

with the characteristics of light plastic, rust prevention, vibration absorption and large degree of design freedom, the application of plastic structural parts of automotive engines has made great progress in developed countries, and is one of the key development directions of China's automotive industry in the future

the development and development of plasticization of engine parts can be divided into two categories:

first, injection molding products that replace metal parts, such as speedometer gears, oil pump gears, engine cylinder heads, pulley covers, cooling fans, engine intake manifolds, accelerometers and clutch pedals

II. Blow molded products of polyolefin, nylon, etc., such as: molding r from the straight section to the clamping of the true transition radius connecting pipe

some suggestions for the development of automotive plastics in China:

(I) the rapid development of China's automotive industry has not only attracted the attention of major automotive groups in the world, but also the attention of Automotive Parts Companies in the world. Many multinational automotive parts companies have established joint-stock and wholly-owned parts enterprises in China. These enterprises have abundant funds, advanced technology and strong development ability, which will not only exert greater pressure on enterprises in the same industry, but also have the possibility of monopolizing the domestic parts market with high technical requirements. This is not only a competition, but also a threat to China's automotive plastics industry

the major breakthroughs of Chinese national industrial enterprises in independent innovation also pose severe challenges to our auto parts and auto plastics industry: can the auto parts and auto plastics industry keep up with the pace of vehicle enterprises in time? Can we use this driving force to increase technical investment and produce supporting products with high technical content

according to the level of technological development, we believe that there are three relationships between auto parts enterprises and auto factories

in order to occupy a place in the auto industry, domestic auto parts and auto plastics enterprises must improve their international competitiveness, raise their development ability and product level to a higher level and participate in the development and competition of the auto industry

(II) attach great importance to environmental protection. From the design and development stage, it is necessary to study the recycling and recycling of automotive plastic materials to meet the needs of environmental protection. This research is not only related to the automotive industry, but also something that the whole society should pay attention to. We should learn from the experience of developed automotive countries on environmental protection as an important research topic

Europe and the United States have a strict definition of environmental protection for automotive plastics, involving the whole life cycle of a product, that is, the use of environmentally friendly raw materials; Manufacturing and production under environmental protection conditions; Products that will not cause any harm to human health and the environment in the process of use and recycling; There should be evaluation methods for harmful substances and odors in plastic products, and the content should be indicated. In terms of the disposal of end-of-life vehicles: the European Community law requires that automobile manufacturers should be responsible for the disposal of all end-of-life vehicles free of charge by 2006. At least 85% of the materials of the total weight of the vehicle must be recycled, and the other 15% of the materials should be disposed of by garbage burying method; By 2015, these two proportions will be 95% and 5% respectively. The metal materials have been fully recycled; However, non-metallic materials, especially plastics, have many kinds and large quantities, so the identification and screening cycle is very long

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